नरेंद्र मोदी क्यों बदलने जा रहे है इंदिरा गाँधी एयरपोर्ट का नाम । दिल्ली के इंदिरा गांधी इंटरनेशनल एयरपोर्ट, जो भारत की राजधानी दिल्ली का प्रधान अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय एयरपोर्ट है, का नाम अब बदला जाएगाl इस बात का संकेत खुद नागरिक उड्डयन राज्यमंत्री ने इंडियन एक्सप्रेस के साथ एक इंटरव्यू में दिया हैl आखिर क्या कारण है कि मोदी सरकार अब ये बदलाव लाने जा रही है? किस कारण के चलते लेना पड़ा ये निर्णय? क्या कहा नागरिक उड्डयन राज्यमंत्री जयंत सिन्हा ने? खबरों और रिपोर्ट्स के अनुसार, एयरपोर्ट के नाम के बदले जाने के सुझाव पर इसलिए विचार किया जा रहा है ताकि यात्रियों और पर्यटकों को दिक्कत ना आये क्योंकि वो ऐसे नामों से परिचित नहीं रहते हैंl राज्यमंत्री जयंत सिन्हा ने इंटरव्यू के दौरान कहा कि इस सुझाव पर विचार किया जा रहा है कि सभी मौजूदा एयरपोर्ट्स और फ्यूचर ग्रीनफील्ड एयरपोर्ट्स का नाम किसी शख्सियत के नाम पर न होकर शहरों के नाम पर होl इसके साथ ही सिन्हा बोले कि फिलहाल यूनियन केबिनेट द्वारा इस सुझाव के पास होने का इंतजार किया जा रहा हैl जल्द ही इसपर अंतिम निर्णय ले लिए जायेगाl ज़्यादातर मुख्य एयरपोर्ट्स का नाम किसी शख्सियत के ऊपर ही है, जैसे छत्रपति शिवाजी इंटरनेशनल एयरपोर्ट(मुंबई), इंदिरा गांधी इंटरनेशनल एयरपोर्ट (दिल्ली), राजीव गांधी इंटरनेशनल एयरपोर्ट (हैदराबाद), चौधरी चरणसिंह इंटरनेशनल एयरपोर्ट (लखनऊ) आदिl शहरों के हिसाब से एयरपोर्ट्स के नाम रखना भी मुश्किल कार्य हैl आप इसे चंडीगढ़ इंटरनेशनल एयरपोर्ट के उदाहरण से समझ सकते है जिसमे दोनों पंजाब और हरयाणा की सरकार का 24.5 फीसदी हिस्सा है और बाकि का स्टेट ओंड अथॉरिटी ऑफ इंडिया के अंदर आता हैl दोनों सरकारों ने 2008 में दो अलग अलग नामों का सुझाव दिया था l पंजाब की तरफ से शहीद-ए-आज़म सरदार भगत सिंह इंटरनेशनल एयरपोर्ट, मोहाली नाम का सुझाव आया था, वहीं हरयाणा की सरकार ने शहीद भगत सिंह इंटरनेशनल एयरपोर्ट, चंडीगढ़ नाम का सुझाव दिया थाl
B737NG operating temperatures Question again out of the field of operation: An aircraft requested a descent due to low SAT/OAT of – 70°C, is there such a limit on the B737NG? It looks that we know the answer related to the minimum FUEL temperature in the tank (#1). For takeoff and in flight this is the highest of -43°C, or 3°C above the freezing level of the fuel in the tanks. Fuel freezing level temperature specifications are: – JET A1 (JP1) _ freezing point – 47°C – JET A _ freezing point – 40°C – JP-5 _ freezing point – 46°C – JP-8 _ freezing point – 47°C Any fuel ice preventing additive does not change the minimum fuel tank temperature limit and (just as a guideline), fuel cools depending on fuel quantity and OAT about 3°C/hr. The actual answer to the question relates to the aircrafts operating OAT’s which can be found on the ENVIRONMENTAL ENVELOPE diagram in the B737NG AFM. I’ve highlighted the in flight minimum and maximum OAT limits, and also the takeoff and landing OAT limits can be determined to the current PA, and ISA deviations. Takeoff and landing limits are bounded at sea level and with standard day conditions from: – Lower OAT limit at – 54°C – Upper OAT limit to + 54°C until + 39,4°C at 8.400 feet PA. (maximum T/O and LND field elevation) In flight the lower limit at standard day conditions depends on PA, and varies from: – Lower OAT limit at 0 ft PA, – 62°C – Lower OAT limit at FL 410, – 73,2°C (mind ISA adjustments)
Which is better: Donald Trump’s plane or Air Force One? On Tuesday, Donald Trump Twitter-suggested that the government cancel its contract for new presidential aircraft from Boeing. One can't help but think that -- perhaps subconsciously, perhaps not -- Trump is entertaining the idea of continuing to use his existing plane, at least every once in a while. There are good reasons he'd want to, as we found when we compared the two planes in Sep. 2015. There is only one candidate for president who already has access to most of the accoutrements of the office. Fabulous, expansive home? Donald Trump has it, atop Manhattan's Trump Tower. A helicopter or snazzy motorcade to shuttle him around? Got that, too. Access to his own golf course, whenever he wants? Sure, take your pick. And then there's the plane. Paul Solotaroff's excellent Rolling Stone profile of Trump starts off on what we'll call "Trump Force One," the 757 Trump bought from Microsoft mogul Paul Allen and refitted with plenty of gold plating and Trump family crests. Trump bragged to Solotaroff about the accommodations. "It's bigger than Air Force One," Trump told Solotaroff, "which is a step down from this in every way. Rolls-Royce engines; seats 43. Didja know it was featured on the Discovery Channel as the world's most luxurious jetliner?" Solotaroff is quick to point out that Trump's plane is, in fact, not bigger than Air Force One (and that it was not on the Discovery Channel, but on the Smithsonian Channel). But we thought this was worth exploring, given that Trump might need to pick between the two in several months. So which is the better plane, Air Force One or Trump Force One? Size Winner: Air Force One As noted above, Air Force One, a modified Boeing 747-200, is indeed larger than Trump Force One, a 757-200 with winglets. We grabbed schematics from Boeing to compare the two. Air Force One is wider, longer, taller. Speed and range Winner: Air Force One When it comes to service as a means of getting from point A (LaGuardia) to point B (Des Moines, Iowa), Air Force One is better, too. Better numbers are in bold below. Air Force One Trump Force One Top speed 0.92 Mach 0.86 Mach Cruising speed 0.84 Mach 0.80 Mach Range 6,800 nm 4,100 nm When you're trying to get from Andrews Air Force Base to Bagram in a hurry, speed and range matter. Fanciness Winner: Trump Force One This is perhaps a bit subjective. But, look: Air Force One, for all of its elegance, is utilitarian, in much the same way that the White House is utilitarian. There's stuff on Air Force One that Trump doesn't need, like seating for members of the media. Air Force One seats 70 people, to Trump's 43. It's a bigger plane, of course, but it's also because it has to schlep around people that Trump's does not. What's more, Trump can invest in touches at which taxpayers might balk. Trump's plane has a movie theater! The president's plane, it seems, does not. It does have a conference room -- but so does Trump Force One. But videos speak 29,970 words per second. So let's compare the two via video tour, shall we? Here's Air Force One: AIRFORCE ONE And here's Trump's: TRUMP ONE The president's plane has a hospital on-board, for obvious reasons, but that's not exactly "fancy." Overall Winner: Donald Trump Look, we're at the point of comparing one giant, customized luxury jet to another. This is like assessing a person who's trying to decide which Bentley to buy at a dealership outside of London. Whichever car he buys, he's probably doing alright. And it suggests a possible campaign plank for Trump: Donald Trump, the guy who will decrease the national debt by selling Air Force One, Marine One, the presidential motorcade and, heck, the White House. After all, who needs 'em?
Those of you who work Line Maintenance know that a good portion of the calls we get during the course of the day are for things like coffee makers, seat belts, window washes, and of course oil. This past week started off normal enough. I start work mid week and one of the first calls was for oil. This is not unusual but as the day progressed it seemed like all the flight crews wanted oil. There were 5 or 6 of us on shift that day and I would bet that each of us went through 2 or 3 cases of oil EACH!! We have a table that we put our empty oil cans on to drain out the last bits of oil and make the cans clean for the recyclers. The table was full and the cans were stacked! I know that this happens every now and then but this seemed to be excessive. Easily every other call was for oil I was amazed. Turns out that the flight crews have a new requirement that says they must call Maintenance Control if they are at a station with no SWA maintenance and their oil qty is 65% or lower. I can only guess as to the reasoning behind this but I'm sure that if the dollars and cents, nitty gritty, nuts and bolts were explained to me, then it would make total sense. What I do know is that the flight crews do not want to talk to Maintenance Control. They like talking to them so little that they make sure that they get the oil filled up at a Maintenance Station, like OAK. I admit that it is tiresome to go out and put 2 or 3 quarts of oil into an engine. I start to think things like "It's raining out here, the Captain is nice and dry upstairs and called me out in this mess to put a lousy 2 quarts of oil in the engine?!" Of course there are times when I have put over 10 quarts into an engine and that pisses me off too. "How could these fools leave whatever station they were at with the oil being so low?" It really irks me that they would treat the engines, my engines like that. I think whats going on is that the company wants to save as much money as possible and it really is kind of silly to have to pay contract maintenance to put oil in a plane that just left OAK (or where ever) one or two legs ago. Saving money helps SWA put food on my table so I guess I will go oil up that plane in the rain, snow, heat, dark even if it's a mere two quarts. It's taking care of our engines and our bottom line, two birds-one can of oil, type of thing.
My wife is a pilot. A lot of my wife's friends are pilots. When her pilot friends come over or we are spending time with them they always start talking pilot talk and I have no idea what they are saying! I started to wonder about aircraft maintenance and mechanics. Do we have our own language? When outsiders are amongst us aircraft mechanics do they have trouble understanding what we are talking about? Of course the answer to both of these questions is: YES! We at SWA have our own lingo we revert to when we are in the break room or trouble shooting, etc. We have the tried and true 3 letter (or more) acronyms such as APU, CDS, EGT, FMC, and on and on and on. There are other things that we say which are airline maint. specific. I started to compile a list of these sayings. Although I am not close to being finished with my list I figured I would share some with you guys and see if you readers have anything to add. With just one weekends work we at the shop came up with the following: Aisle Donkey a flight attendant Dip-Shittery your basic cluster in progress Angle of the Dangle this refers to using wrenches or tools and how the angle of the fastener relates to the angle of the wrench you are using to remove it. German Torque unspecified torque on a bolt or fastener. Pretzelized when something is totally out of shape or crushed up PBA Prolly-Be-Alright Lick it, Stick it and Kick it!! MEL the thing and get it out of here. Pushin' Tin The process of keeping planes in the air. Doing maintenance so the plane keeps flying. These are just a few of the things we say at work and I will keep adding to the list as time goes on. Until then keep Pushin' Tin!!
Instrument Landing System What is an ILS? An ILS is a highly accurate radio signal navigation aid used by pilots landing at an airport when there is poor weather and/or low visibility. It consists of two antennas which transmit signals to receivers in the aircraft cockpit—a glide path tower located next to the runway at the northern end and a localiser antenna at the southern end. These antennas provide the pilot with vertical and horizontal guidance when landing in low visibility. Video Explanation - https://youtu.be/ETWyDF3JCZc An ILS may be used outside these conditions as a preferred approach particularly for international operators. It may also be used by some aircraft at night and there will be occasions where aircraft and airlines require the ILS approach for licensing and training requirements. How the localizer and glide path work together to provide vertical and horizontal guidance to pilots ? How will an ILS improve flight reliability? Gold Coast Airport is operating safely without an ILS and the public can continue to travel by air with confidence. An ILS enables airlines and airports to continue operations in low visibility conditions, such as heavy rain and very low cloud. This will increase the reliability of landing at the airport. In any weather conditions, pilots must be able to see the runway before landing. Installing an ILS at Gold Coast Airport will reduce the decision altitude or height at which a pilot must make the decision to continue with the landing with the runway in sight or to go-around or divert because the runway is obscured by cloud. An ILS will reduce the decision height, or minima, from 500 feet to 280 feet, improving the chance of landing in poor weather. However, an ILS will not guarantee a landing in all weather—the decision to land in poor weather is ultimately up to the pilot-in-command. Why is an ILS proposed for Gold Coast Airport? An ILS was foreshadowed in Gold Coast Airport’s 2011 Master Plan which outlines key infrastructure and capability needs over the next 20 years to meet air traffic growth. An ILS is a well-established and proven technology used around the world. All commercial aircraft currently flying into the airport are able to make use of ILS technology to assist with landing in low visibility. Increasingly, aircraft are also able to use satellite-assisted technologies, such as Smart Tracking, which was permanently introduced at the Gold Coast in late 2014. Why is the proposed ILS being installed on Runway 14? The ILS is proposed to be installed on Runway 14 as about two-thirds of flights to Gold Coast Airport land from this direction each year due to prevailing winds in the area. Runway 14 is also the airport’s preferred runway and is used by aircraft landing from the north. Airlines were also consulted about the decision on which runway to install the ILS. What is the difference between ILS and Smart Tracking? Smart Tracking is satellite-assisted navigation technology allowing aircraft to fly with greater accuracy and can assist in allowing an aircraft to land in low visibility conditions. At the Gold Coast, Smart Tracking allows aircraft to approach Runway 14 from the south and north with the majority of the flight path over the water before making a final approach for landing. Smart Tracking at Gold Coast Airport has a decision altitude or minima—where the pilot must be able to see the runway to continue with the landing—of 500 feet. In comparison, the proposed ILS will provide a minimum decision altitude of 280 feet and will improve the predictability of landing at the airport in low visibility conditions.
Aircraft Cabin Pressurization What is Cabin Pressurization? Cabin pressurization is the active pumping of compressed air into an aircraft cabin when flying at altitude to maintain a safe and comfortable environment for crew and passengers in the low outside atmospheric pressure. Pressurization is essential over 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) to protect crew and passengers from the risk of hypoxia and a number of other physiological problems in the thin air above that altitude and increases passenger comfort generally. "The outflow valve is constantly being positioned to maintain cabin pressure as close to sea level as practical, without exceeding a cabin-to-outside pressure differential of 8.60 psi." At a cruising altitude of 39,000 feet (FL 390), a Boeing 767's cabin will be pressurized to an altitude of 6,900 feet. Possible sickness When the aircraft lost its' pressure crew and passengers are at risk from hypoxia, altitude sickness, decompression sickness and barotrauma. Hypoxia The lack of oxygen into the lungs and subsequently in the brain leading to sluggish thinking, dimmed vision, loss of consciousness and ultimately death. In some individuals, particularly those with heart or lung disease, symptoms may begin as low as 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) above sea level although most passengers can tolerate altitudes of 2,500 metres (8,200 ft) without ill effect. At this altitude, there is about 25% less oxygen than there is at sea level. Hypoxia may be addressed by the administration of supplemental oxygen, usually through an oxygen mask sometimes through a nasal cannula. Altitude sickness The low local partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2) causes CO2 to out-gas from the blood raising the blood pH and inducing alkalosis. Passengers may experience fatigue, nausea, headaches, sleeplessness and on extended flights even pulmonary oedema. These are the same symptoms that mountain climbers experience but the limited duration of powered flight makes the development of pulmonary oedema unlikely. Altitude sickness may be controlled by a full pressure suit with helmet and faceplate, which completely envelopes the body in a pressurized environment; this is clearly impractical for commercial passengers. Decompression sickness The low local partial pressure of gases, principally nitrogen (N2) but including all other gases, may cause dissolved gases in the bloodstream to precipitate out resulting in gas embolism or bubbles in the bloodstream. The mechanism is the same as for compressed air divers on ascent from depth. Symptoms may include the early symptoms of the diver's bends: tiredness, forgetfulness, headache, stroke, thrombosis subcutaneous itching but rarely the full symptoms of the bends. Decompression sickness may also be controlled by a full pressure suit as for altitude sickness. Barotrauma As the aircraft climbs or descends passengers may experience discomfort or acute pain as gases trapped within their bodies expand or contract. The most common problems occur with air trapped in the middle ear (aerotitus) or paranasal sinuses by a blocked Eustachian tube or sinuses. Pain may also be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract or even the teeth (barodontalgia). Usually these are not severe enough to cause actual trauma but can result in soreness in the ear that persists after the flight and can exacerbate or precipitate pre-existing medical conditions such as pneumothorax (collapsed lung). The following video is on barotruma on bats as they flew through wind turbines. Summary Pressurization is when aircraft is keeping its pressure at a safe psi when the outside altitude and pressure is far lower and colder. This is to substain life on board the flight and to give comfort to human live. When pressurization is not done properly, there will be a drastic lost of pressure and a number of illness will set in to hinder human life.
Airbus A380 Interesting Facts 1. The first fact about A380 will surprise you. Many believe that A380 is the largest plane in the world. It is not! There is one more airplane called Antonov An-225, it is larger than A380. It is russian-made aircraft and built for cargo transportation only. The An-225 is displayed in the right image. 2. The A380 is 24.1 meters high, 80 meters wide, and 72.7 meters long, equivalent to 2 blue whales length. The plane weighs approximately 590 tons. 3. The wings of the plane are 54% larger than the wings of a Boeing 747 aircraft. 4. The giant plane has enough space to carry approximately 3000 suitcases and 525 passengers. 5. The wings and Engines of A380 are made in England, tail and fuselage is made in Span and Germany. All parts once made are then shipped to France by ship, land for assembly. 6. The internal working temperature of the airplane’s four engines is 3100 degrees. And the engines are of the same lengths as of Mercedes C-series car. 7. The A380 holds 81900 gallons of fuel weighing 560 tons. It burns 17% less fuel than other large airplanes. It consumes 4 liter of fuel in 100km per passenger. 8. Only 20 runways in the world are now fully capable of handling A380 aircrafts. Others are not long or wide enough or not technically equipped for A380. 9. 21 flight attendants work in an A380, working in 5 galleys. The flight attendants have rest apartments with beds provided for napping during long-haul flights 10. The giant plane flies at 43,000 feet, with maximum speed of 640 miles/hour. 11. 8000 bolts are used to attach the three main parts of the aircraft. In total an A380 comprises of 4 million individual components, produced by 1500 companies, in 30 different countries. 12. The A380 is a low-noise aircraft and uses light-weight and environment-friendly components. This aircraft also has lowest emission than any other aircraft. 13. The aircraft is designed for 140,000 flying hours. 14. If all the wiring in the A380 is laid end to end, it will stretch from Edinburgh to London – 320 miles. 15. More than 3600 liters of paint is required to paint the exterior of the aircraft.
Boeing 737 NG - New fuel start-switch & parking brake lever layout The present 737NG cockpit engine fuel-levers will be replaced by new lighted lever-lock toggle switches on 737NG airplanes from line number 5605 and on. The new switches should prove more reliable and easier to maintain. This configuration will also be incorporated on 737 MAX airplanes. The new engine fuel start levers will be at the same location on the control stand as now, just aft of the throttle levers. A new light plate will be installed to provide illuminated nomenclature for the “Engine 1” and “Engine 2” levers, and for the relocated parking brake light. Another improvement with the new levers is the interconnection with the fire warning system. The appropriate engine start lever will now illuminate together with the engine fire warning switch. Another change include a redesigned parking brake lever that is more ergonomic, a modified parking brake linkage to eliminate interference issues, and a smaller parking brake LED in place of the current indicator light. See the pictures below for more clarification of the new start switches, parking brake lever and repositioned horn cut-out switch.
Fuel boost pumps Fuel boost pumps are designed as a dual pump unit that scavenges fuel by use of an inducer, and pressurizes fuel by an impeller type pump. During operation the pump units are self cooled and lubricated by fuel flowing through the assembly. Each main tank (#1/Left and #2/Right) has a FWD and AFT fuel boost pump supplying pressurized fuel to its respective engine, or to the fuel supply manifold for APU and/or X-feeding. These 115 VAC electrical fuel boost pumps produce a flow of ± 9.000 kg/h with a pressure of more than 10 PSI. The boost pumps LOW PRESSURE light illuminates when pump pressure drops below 6 PSI. A LOW PRESSURE light on one side will not straight away trigger the MASTER CAUTION circuit as there is an electrical redundancy on that side. Of course it does illuminate on RECALL, or when both boost pumps on one side produce low or no pressure. A discharge check valve prevents fuel flow from the engine feed manifold through the pump preventing fuel transfer into that respective tank. A bypass valve allows a secondary fuel flow path to the engine when the boost pump is inoperative, providing a suction fuel feed capability by negative fuel pressure created by operation of the engine fuel pump. The center tank has two fuel boost pumps which are connecting to the left-, and right side of the fuel supply manifold . These 115 VAC fuel boost pumps produce a flow of ± 12.700 kg/h with a pressure of 23 psi and higher. A LOW PRESSURE light illuminates when the center tank boost pump switch is ON, and that boost pump output pressure drops below 22 PSI. The latest modification also triggers the MASTER CAUTION light with the respective annunciator on a single center tank boost pump LOW PRESSURE indication. Most of the current used center tank boost pumps are provided with an automatic shut-off when low pressure is sensed for 15 seconds. After an auto shut-off, it is possible to reset the circuit by selecting the respective switch to OFF and back to ON. When the fuel LOW PRESSURE light illuminates, there is a 10 second delay before the MASTER CAUTION is triggered. Important to know that the center tank boost pump is NOT equipped with a bypass valve so it is not possible to suction feed from the center tank. When both pumps fail and there is fuel in the center tank you have to consider this as unusable fuel that needs to be added up to the ZFW. The FCOM requires that the flight deck needs to be occupied when a center tank boost pump is operating related to the worst case, that a non modified center tank boost pump is installed without the auto-shutdown feature. Due to the position of the center boost pumps scavenge pickup, it is possible that the LOW PRESSURE light flickers in a nose up attitude when there is low quantity in the center tank after takeoff. The FCOM states that if the quantity is below 453 Kgs, to switch OFF the center boost pumps until level flight. When the center tank is empty and the LOW PRESSURE light flickers with intermittent fuel pick-up by the pump, it may take up to 5 minutes to illuminate the associated MASTER CAUTION annunciator. Electrical power for the boost pumps comes from: 115 VAC XFR bus 1 – 1 FWD boost pump – 2 AFT boost pump – Left Center boost pump 115 VAC XFR bus 2 – 1 AFT boost pump – 2 FWD boost pump – Right Center boost pump The circuit breakers for the pumps are not accessible as they are located on the Power Distribution Panel (P-92) in the E & E bay. (see Electrical Supplement)